Agricultural Engineering – AG
Matrices and Determinants, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and eigen vectors.
Limit, continuity and differentiability; Partial Derivatives; Maxima and minima; Sequences and series;
Test for convergence; Fourier series.
Gradient; Divergence and Curl; Line; surface and volume integrals; Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.
Linear and non-linear first order ODEs; Higher order linear ODEs with constant coefficients;Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations; Laplace transforms; PDEs- - Laplace, heat and wave equations.
Probability and Statistics:
Mean, median, mode and standard deviation; Random variables; Poisson, normal and binomial distributions; Correlation and regression analysis.
Solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations; integration of trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule; single and multi-step methods for differential equations.
FARM MACHINERY AND POWER
Sources of power on the farm-human, animal, mechanical, electrical, wind, solar and biomass; bio-fuels; design and selection of machine elements - gears, pulleys, chains and sprockets and belts; overload safety devices used in farm machinery; measurement of force, torque, speed, displacement and acceleration on machine elements.Soil tillage; forces acting on a tillage tool; hitch systems and hitching of tillage implements; mechanics of animal traction; functional requirements, principles of working, construction and operation of manual, animal and power operated equipment for tillage, sowing, planting, fertilizer application, inter-cultivation, spraying, mowing, chaff cutting, harvesting, threshing and transport; testing of agricultural machinery and equipment; calculation of performance parameters -field capacity, efficiency, application rate and losses; cost analysis of implements and tractors Thermodynamic principles of I.C. engines; I.C. engine cycles; engine components; fuels and combustion; lubricants and their properties; I.C. engine systems - fuel, cooling, lubrication, ignition, electrical, intake and exhaust; selection,operation, maintenance and repair of I.C. engines; power efficiencies and measurement; calculation of power,
torque, fuel consumption, heat load and power losses.Tractors and power tillers - type, selection, maintenance and repair; tractor clutches and brakes; power transmission systems - gear trains, differential, final drives and power take-off; mechanics of tractor chassis; traction theory;three point hitches- free link and restrained link operations;
mechanical steering and hydraulic control systems used in tractors; human engineering and safety in tractor design; tractor tests and performance.
SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION ENGINEERING
Ideal and real fluids, properties of fluids; hydrostatic pressure and its measurement; hydrostatic forces on plane and curved surface; continuity equation; Bernoulli’s theorem; laminar and turbulent flow in pipes, Darcy- Weisbach and Hazen-Williams equations, Moody’s diagram; flow through orifices and notches; flow in open channels.Engineering properties of soils; fundamental definitions and relationships; index properties of soils; permeability and seepage analysis; shear strength, Mohr’s circle of stress, active and passive earth pressures; stability of slopes. Hydrological cycle; meteorological parameters and their measurement, analysis of precipitation data; abstraction from precipitation; runoff; hydrograph analysis, unit hydrograph theory and application; stream flow measurement;flood routing, hydrological reservoir and channel routing.Measurement of distance and area; chain surveying, methods of traversing; measurement of angles and bearings,plane table surveying; types of levelling; contouring; instruments for surveying and levelling; computation of earth work.Mechanics of soil erosion, soil erosion types; wind and water erosion; factors affecting erosion; soil loss estimation;biological and engineering measures to control erosion; terraces and bunds; vegetative waterways; gully control structures, drop, drop inlet and chute spillways; earthen dams; water harvesting structures, farm ponds, watershed management.Soil-water-plant relationship, water requirement of crops; consumptive use and evapo-transpiration; irrigation
scheduling; irrigation efficiencies; design of irrigation channels; measurement of soil moisture, irrigation water and infiltration; surface, sprinkler and drip methods of irrigation; design and evaluation of irrigation methods.Drainage coefficient; planning, design and layout of surface and sub-surface drainage systems; leaching requirement and salinity control; irrigation and drainage water quality.Groundwater occurrence confined and unconfined aquifers, evaluation of aquifer properties; well hydraulics;groundwater recharge. Classification of pumps; pump characteristics; pump selection and installation.
AGRICULTURAL PROCESSING AND FOOD ENGINEERING
Steady state heat transfer in conduction, convection and radiation; transient heat transfer in simple geometry;condensation and boiling heat transfer; working principles of heat exchangers; diffusive and convective mass transfer; simultaneous heat and mass transfer in agricultural processing operations.
Material and energy balances in food processing systems; water activity, sorption and desorption isotherms;
centrifugal separation of solids, liquids and gases; kinetics of microbial death - pasteurization and sterilization of liquid foods; preservation of food by cooling and freezing; refrigeration and cold storage basics and applications; psychrometry - properties of air-vapour mixture; concentration and drying of liquid foods - evaporators, tray, drum and spray dryers.Mechanics and energy requirement in size reduction of granular solids; particle size analysis for comminuted solids; size separation by screening; fluidization of
granular solids-pneumatic, bucket, screw and belt conveying;cleaning and grading; Effectiveness of grain cleaners.Hydrothermal treatment, drying and milling of cereals, pulses and oilseeds; Processing of seeds, spices, fruits and vegetables; By-product utilization from processing industries.Controlled and modified atmosphere storage; Perishable food storage, godowns, bins and grain silos.