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Computer Graphics Materials Free Download

Question 1. What is computer graphics?

Answer- The term computer graphics include almost every thing on computer that is not text or sound. It is an art of drawing pictures, lines. charts, etc. using computers with the help of programming. Or we can say that graphics is the representation and manipulation of image data by computer with the help from specialized software and hardware. Graphic designing is done using the various available softwares for computers which can produce the 3D images in the required shape and dimension. Computer graphics help us in getting the real display experiences. 

Question 2. Write the important applications of computer graphic?

Answer- Following are the applications of computer graphic

1. computer graphics is used in the field of computer aided design.

2. It is used to produce illustrations for reports or to generate slide for with projections.

3. Computer graphic methods are widely used in both fine are and commercial are applications.

4. The artist uses a combination of 3D modeling packages, texture mapping, drawing programs and CAD software.

5. In the field of entertainment CG methods are now commonly used in making motion pictures. music videos and television shows. 

6. Computer-generated models of physical, financial and economic systems are often used as educational aids.

Question-3 What are the raster and vector graphics?

Answer- The Raster and Vector graphics can be explained as-

RASTER- In computer graphics image, or BITMAP, is a dot matrix data structure representing a generally rectangular grid of pixels or points of color, viewable via a monitor, paper, or other display medium. Raster image are stored in image files with varying formats. 

VECTOR- Vector graphics is the use of geometrical primitives such as points, lines, curves, and shapes or polygon, which are all based on mathematical expressions, to represent image in computer graphics. “Vector”, in this context, implies more than a straight line. 

Question-4 Write the difference between vector and raster graphics?

Answer-Following are the differences between vector and raster graphics-

1. Raster or Bitmap images are resolution dependent because of this its not possible to increase or decrease their size without sacrificing on image quality. While vector based image are not dependent on resolution. The size of vector image image can be increased or decreased without affecting image quality. 

2. Raster or bitmap images are always rectangular in shape, Vector image, however, can have any shape. 

3. Unlike raster image, vector image can’t be use for realistic images. This is because vector images are made up of solid color areas and mathematical gradients, so they can’t be used to show continuous tones of a colors in a natural photograph. 

Question-5 What is scaling in computer graphics? 

Answer- In computer graphic, image scaling is the process of resizing a digital image. scaling is a non-trivial process that involves a trade off between efficiency, smoothness and sharpness. With bitmap graphics, as the size of an image is reduced or enlarged, the pixels which comprise the image become increasingly visible, making the image appear “soft” if pixels are averaged, or jagged if not. 

Question-6 What are the hardware devices used for computer graphics? 

Answer- The hardwares devices used for the computer graphics are- Input Devices

Keyboard, Mouse, Data tablet, Scanner, Light pen, Touch screen, Joystick

Output Devices

Raster Devices- CRT, LCD, LED, Plasma screens, Printers

Vector Devices- Plotters, Oscilloscopes

Question-7 What are the features of inkjet printers?

Answer- Features of inkjet printers are-

1. They can print 2 to 4 pages per minute.

2. resolution is about 360d.p.i. Therefor better print quality is achieved.

3. The operating cost is very low. The only part that requires replacement is ink cartridge.

4. Four colors cyan, yellow, magenta, black are available.

Question-8 What are the advantages of electrostatic plotters?

Answer- Following are the advantages of electrostatic plotters-

1. They are faster then pen plotters and very high quality printers.

2. Recent electrostatic plotters includes a scan conversion capability.

3. color electrostatic plotters are available. They make multiple passes over the paper to plot color picture.

Question-9 What is meant by scan code?

Answer- When a key is pressed on the keyboard, the keyboard controller places a code carry to the key pressed in to the part of the memory called as the keyboard buffer. This code is called as scan code. 

Question-10 Define Random and Raster scan displays? 

Answer- Random scan is a method in which display is made by electronic beam, which is directed only to the points or parts of the screen where picture is to be drawn. The Raster scan system is a scanning technique in which the electron sweep from top to bottom and from left to right. The intensity is turned on or off to light and un-light the pixel. 

Mention some of the image formats used in multimedia?

Some of the image formats used in multimedia are 

• GIF files

• JPG files

• Animated GIF files

• MPEG files

• Shockwave files and

• Nx View files.

6. Define MIDI?

MIDI format or the Musical Instrument Digital Interface is one that is commonly used for transferring music information between electronic music devices like synthesizers and sound cards in computers. 

7. What is warping?

The technique of distorting a single image to represent something else is known as warping.

8. What is AVI format?

• The Audio Video Interleave or AVI format was developed by Microsoft in 1992.

• It is supported by all Windows operating systems and by most of the popular web browsers.

• It is a very common format on the Internet. Files in the AVI format have the extension.avi.

9. Write a note on video files?

• Video files tend to be very heavy. Several elements such as frame rate, image size, and color depth determine the size of these files. 

• It can differ, to reduce the file size to acceptable levels.

• The color depth could be reduced to less than 256 colors results in shabby image.

• Similarly, reducing the frame count to less than 15 frames per second causes the video to look jerky. 

10. Write a note on GIF?

• GIF (Graphic Interchange Format) is limited to an 8-bit palette.

• GIF is best suited for storing simple graphic images with relatively few colors.

• However it is not well fitted for photographic works.JPG scores over GIF in this area.

• GIF is still used extensively on the Internet and Multimedia applications because of the great reservoir of GIF images available and support for animation. 

11. Mention the categories or JPEG formats?

There are two categories of image file compression are

• lossy and 

• lossless

12. What is compression?

• Compression is a technique by which a recurring set of information is identified and replaced by a single piece of information. 

13. What is elearning?

• The growing popularity of multimedia is used to train and educate people world over.

• They are called elearning packages. The most common version of such packages is Computer Based and Web Based Tutorials (CBT/WBT). It is self-paced learning process. 

14. Write a note on JPEG?

• The JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) image files are a lossy format.

• All digital cameras can store JPEG formats. The JPEG format supports full color and produces relatively small file sizes. 

15. Mention the special effect technology in 3–D animation?

The special effect technology in 3-D animation are morphing and warping.

16. What is wave pattern of the sound?

• The sounds that we hear are analog wave patterns.

• Two attributes control the characteristics of sound.

• They are amplitude and frequency. 

17. What is the use of self-paced learning?

• The use of self-paced learning is that the learner can learn by himself, at a pace and time that he is comfortable with. 

• Plus there is no instructor and the learner does not have to travel to a location to attend the classes.

• This eliminates the logistical problems of getting together people from different parts of the world.

18. What are the most common file formats used in multimedia?

• The two most common multimedia elements are GIF and JPG files.

• Both of these formats compress static as opposed to animated bitmap images.

19. What are multimedia simulations?

Multimedia simulations are very effective in explaining difficult concepts and facts. Such media make learning more fun and effective. 

20. Compare lossless and lossy video compressions?

• Lossless Compression: Retains the exact image throughout the compression.

• Lossy Compression: Provides a comparatively higher ratio of compression but results in some loss of quality. 

What is MMS?

• MMS stand for Multimedia Messaging System.

• It is an application that allows one to send and receive messages over cell phones.

• These are popularly being used to send and receive jokes, music, ringtones, pictures and sometime even videos. 

22. What is SND format?

• The Sound or SND format was also developed by Apple.

• Like the AIFF format, the SND files neither cross-platform nor Supported by popular web browsers.

• Files in the SND format have the extension.snd. 

23. What is real audio format?

• The Real Audio Format was developed by Real Networks in 1995 and supports both sound and videos. 

• This format is more popular for transfer of data over the internet and allows one to stream files even over internet connections with low bandwidths. 

• However, the quality of these transmissions is often poor.

24. What is volume?

• The volume is the height of each crest in the wave

What is sampling?

• We have to convert the analog sound waves into a digital format before including it in an application.

• This conversion of analog sound waves to a digital format is called Sampling.

26. What are the areas where Multimedia applications are used?

Multimedia applications are also widely used in the field of 

• Engineering

• Medicine and 

• Scientific research

27. How will we create 3–D animations?

Creating a 3–D animation is a 3-step process.

• Modeling

• Animating and

• Rendering

28. What is MP3/MPEG format?

• The MPEG format was developed by Moving Pictures Experts Group.

• This MPEG format developed for video files while the MP3 format is used to store sound (music).

• This format has become famous in the Internet in recent times.

Source: Contents are provided by Technicalsymposium Google Group Members. 
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