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26) How can variables be characterized?

The variables can be categorized by storage class as well as by data type. The storage class specifies the portion of the program within which the variables are recognized. 

27) Give the rules for variable declaration?

The rules for variable declaration in C are given below :

• A variable name consists of alphabets, digits and the underscore (_) character

• The length of variable should be kept upto 8 characters though your system may allow upto 40 characters

• They must begin with an alphabet

• Some systems also recognize an underscore as the first character

• White space and commas are not allowed

• Any reserved word (keyword) cannot be used as a variable name.

28) What is the purpose of type declarations?

The type declaration allow to create a synonym for other data types. Its syntax is type def type identifier; The declaration type def unsigned long int INTEGER 

29) What is recursion?

C language a function may call another function. When a function calls itself, it is referred to as recursive call and the process is known as recursion. C provides very good facilities for recursion. 

30) What is data types?

Data types refer to the classes of data that can be manipulated by C programs. The three fundamental data types supported by C are character, integer and real type. 

1. What is data structure?

The logical and mathematical model of a particular organization of data is called data structure. There are two types of data structure 



2. What are the goals of Data Structure?

It must rich enough in structure to reflect the actual relationship of data in real world.

The structure should be simple enough for efficient processing of data.

3. What does abstract Data Type Mean?

Data type is a collection of values and a set of operations on these values. Abstract data type refer to the mathematical concept that define the data type.It is a useful tool for specifying the logical properties of a data type.ADT consists of two parts 

1.Values definition

2.Operation definition

4. What is the difference between a Stack and an Array?

1. Stack is a ordered collection of items

2. Stack is a dynamic object whose size is constantly changing as items are pushed and popped .

3. Stack may contain different data types

4. Stack is declared as a structure containing an array to hold the element of the stack, and an integer to indicate the current stack top within the array. 


• Array is an ordered collection of items

• Array is a static object i.e. no of item is fixed and is assigned by the declaration of the array

• It contains same data types.

• Array can be home of a stack i.e. array can be declared large enough for maximum size of the stack. 

5. What do you mean by recursive definition?

The definition which defines an object in terms of simpler cases of itself is called recursive definition. 

6. What is sequential search?

In sequential search each item in the array is compared with the item being searched until a match occurs. It is applicable to a table organized either as an array or as a linked list. 

7. What actions are performed when a function is called?

When a function is called

i) arguments are passed

ii) local variables are allocated and initialized

ii) transferring control to the function

8. What actions are performed when a function returns?

i) Return address is retrieved

ii) Function’s data area is freed

iii) Branch is taken to the return address

9. What is a linked list?

A linked list is a linear collection of data elements, called nodes, where the linear order is given by pointers. Each node has two parts first part contain the information of the element second part contains the address of the next node in the list. 

10. What are the advantages of linked list over array (static data structure)?

The disadvantages of array are

1. unlike linked list it is expensive to insert and delete elements in the array

2. One can’t double or triple the size of array as it occupies block of memory space.

In linked list

1. each element in list contains a field, called a link or pointer which contains the address of the next element

2. Successive element’s need not occupy adjacent space in memory.

11. Can we apply binary search algorithm to a sorted linked list, why?

No we cannot apply binary search algorithm to a sorted linked list, since there is no way of indexing the middle element in the list. This is the drawback in using linked list as a data structure. 

12. What do you mean by free pool?

Pool is a list consisting of unused memory cells which has its own pointer. 

13. What do you mean by garbage collection?

It is a technique in which the operating system periodically collects all the deleted space onto the free storage list.It takes place when there is minimum amount of space left in storage list or when "CPU" is ideal.The alternate method to this is to immediately reinsert the space into free storage list which is time consuming. 

14. What do you mean by overflow and underflow?

• When new data is to be inserted into the data structure but there is no available space i.e. free storage list is empty this situation is called overflow. 

• When we want to delete data from a data structure that is empty this situation is called underflow. 

15. What are the disadvantages array implementations of linked list?

1.The no of nodes needed can’t be predicted when the program is written.

2.The no of nodes declared must remain allocated throughout its execution

16. What is a queue?

A queue is an ordered collection of items from which items may be deleted at one end (front end) and items inserted at the other end (rear end).It obeys FIFO rule there is no limit to the number of elements a queue contains. 

17. What is a priority queue?

The priority queue is a data structure in which the intrinsic ordering of the elements (numeric or alphabetic)

Determines the result of its basic operation. It is of two types

i) Ascending priority queue- Here smallest item can be removed (insertion is arbitrary)

ii) Descending priority queue- Here largest item can be removed (insertion is arbitrary)

18. What are the disadvantages of sequential storage?

1.Fixed amount of storage remains allocated to the data structure even if it contains less element.

2.No more than fixed amount of storage is allocated causing overflow 

19. What are the disadvantages of representing a stack or queue by a linked list?

i) A node in a linked list (info and next field) occupies more storage than a corresponding element in an array.

ii) Additional time spent in managing the available list.

20. What is dangling pointer and how to avoid it?

• After a call to free(p) makes a subsequent reference to *p illegal, i.e. though the storage to p is freed but the value of p(address) remain unchanged .so the object at that address may be used as the value of *p (i.e. there is no way to detect the illegality).Here p is called dangling pointer. 

• To avoid this it is better to set p to NULL after executing free(p).The null pointer value doesn’t reference a storage location it is a pointer that doesn’t point to anything.

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