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Instrumentation and Control Engineering Materials-Free Download
Question 1. What Is Instrumentation?
The technology which is used to measured and control the process system of plant is called instrumentation. It is branch of engineering.
• Question 2. What Is Reynolds Number?
We know with help of reynolds number what type of flow in fluid.
• Question 3. Why Do We Use 4-20ma Signal Instead Of 0-10 Ma?
To elevate zero so that we can come to know whether it is dead zero or from signal.
• Question 4. What Is The Difference Between Dry Leg And Wet Leg?
Dry leg means in lab. And wet leg means in feild
• Question 5. How Can We Calibrate A Positioner?
A positioner is a device put into a valve to ensure that it is at a correct position of opening as per the control signal. An I/P converter only sends the opening/closing request to valve but can not confirm its position. Positioner senses the valve opening through a position feedback link connected to valve stem which is its input signal. I/P converter output is its setpoint input. The difference between these two is the error signal based on which the positioner positions the valve to correct position to reduce error to zero. Hence positioner is nothing but a pneumatic feedback controller. Controlled external supply air to positioner provides power to positioner to position a valve. Also positioner is used in a valve when valve operating signal range is different from I/P converter output range.
• Question 6. Explain What Is The Working Principle Of The Magnetic Meter?
An electric potential is developed when a conductor is moved across the magnetic field. In most electrical machinery the conductor is a wire. The principle is equally applicable to a moving, electrically conductive liquid. The primary device of commercial magnetic meters consist of straight cylindrical electrically insulated tube with a pair of electrodes nearly flush with the tube walls and located at opposite end of a tube diameter. This device is limited to electrically conducting liquids. The magnetic meter is particularly suited to measurement of slurries and dirty fluids.
• Question 7. Tell Me The Mechanism Behind The Turbine Meter?
Turbine meters consist of straight flow tube within which a turbine or fan is free to rotate about it s axis which is fixed along g the centre line of the tube. Mostly, a magnetic pick up system senses the rotation of the rotor through the tube walls. The turbine meter is a flow rate device, since the rotor speed is directly proportional to the flow rate. The output is usually in the form of electric pulses from the magnetic pick up with a frequency proportional to the flow rate.
• Question 8. How To Choose Differential Range? Answer : The most common range for differential range for liquid measurement is 0-100. This range is high enough to minimize the errors caused by unequal heads in the seal chambers. It is also dependent on the differences in the temperature of the load lines. The 100 range permits an increased in capacity up to 400. While decrease down up to 20 by merely changing the range tubes or range adjustments. • Question 9. What Is The Working Of Rota Meter?
Variable area meters are special form of head meters. Where in the area of flow restrictor is varied. So as to hold the differential pressure constant. The rota meter consists of a vertical tapered tube through which the metered fluid flows in upward direction. As the flow varies the ‘float' rises or falls to vary the area of the passages that the differential across it balances the gravitational force on the ‘float'. The differential pressure is maintained constant. The position of the ‘float' is the measure of the rate of flow.
• Question 10. Explain What Are De-saturators?
When, in some processes, e.g. batch processes, long transient responses are expected during which a sustained deviation is present the controller integral action continuously drives the output to a minimum or maximum value. This phenomenon is called ‘integral saturation of the control unit'. When this condition is met, then this unit is de-saturated.
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