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Instrumentation and Control Engineering Materials-Free Download

• Question 31. Do You Know How Do You Identify An Orifice In The Pipeline?

Answer :

An orifice tab is welded on the orifice plate which extends out of the line giving an indication of the orifice plate.

• Question 32. Explain What Are Different Types Of Orifice Plates? State Their Uses?

Answer :

Different orifice plates are: 

1. Concentric 

2. Segmental 

3. Eccentric

Concentric: These plates are used for ideal liquid as well as gases and steam service. Concentric holes are present in these plates, thats why it is known as concentric orifice. 

Segmental: This plate has hole in the form of segment of the circle. This plate is used for colloidal and sherry flow measurement. 

Eccentric: This plate has the eccentric holes. This plate is used in viscous and sherry flow measurement.

• Question 33. Why Thermo Wells Are Used? What Materials Are Used In Thermo Wells?

Answer :

In numerous applications, it is neither desirable nor practical to expose a temperature sensor directly to a material. Wells are therefore used to protect against damage corresion, arosion, aborsion and high pressure processes. A thermo well is also useful in protecting a sensor from physical damage during handling and normal operations. Materials used in thermo wells: Stainless steel, Inconel, Monel, Alloy Steel, Hastelloy 

• Question 34. Can You Explain The Burnout Feature?

Answer :

Burnout provides the warnsug feature of driving indicator at the end of scale, if the input circuit is open. A burnout resistor is provided which develops a voltage drop between the measuring circuit and amplifier. The polarity of the signal determines the direction of the servo drive upon an open circuit in the input. 

Upscale burnout: R value 10 M

Downscale burnout: R value 22 M

• Question 35. What Is Constant Voltage Unit?

Answer :

The constant voltage circuit consists of a rectifier, CR and a filter capacitor. It is followed by two stages of zener regulation. Abridge configuration is provided to lamp line voltage zener regulation. Regulation 1 and regulation 2 provides relatively provide constant current. Resistors form a bridge that may remoment line voltage effects. 

• Question 36. Tell Me The Working Of An Enraf Level Gauge?

Answer :

Enraf level gauge is based on the ser powered null balance technique. A displacer serves as continuous level sensing element. A two phase ser motor controlled by a capacitive balance system winds unwinds the the measuring wire until the tension in the weight springs is in balance with the weight of the displaced part immersed in the liquid. The sensing system in balance measures the two capacitance formed by the moving central sensing rod provided by the two capacitor plates and the si plates. 

• Question 37. Do You Know The Working Of An Electronic Level Troll?

Answer : The variation in level of buoyancy resulting from a change in liquid level varies the net weight of the displacer increasing or decreasing the load on the torque arm. This change is directly proportional to change in level and specific gravity of the liquid. The resulting torque tube movement varies the angular motion of the rotor in RVDT providing a rotor change proportional to the rotor displacement, which is converted and amplified to a D.C. current. 

• Question 38. Explain How D.p. Transmitter Can Be Applied To Open Tank? 

In open tank the lower pressure side is vented to the atmosphere. All pressure is applied to the high pressure side. This vessel pressure is measured through high pressure side. 

• Question 39. Do You Know How D.p. Transmitter Can Be Applied To Close Tank? 

In closed tank, bottom of the tank is connected to the high pressure side of the transmitter. Top of tank is connected to the lower pressure side of the transmitter. In this way vessel pressure can be measured. • Question 40. What Is The Function Of 3-way Manifold Valve? Answer : excessive pressure to your differential pressure transmitter, you could damage your instrument. This is known as over-ranging the transmitter. A three-way manifold valve is a device that prevents the instrument from being over-ranged. It also allows the isolation of the transmitter from the process loop (an option which could be used generaly for maintenance or re-calibration or fitting new equipment). 

• Question 41. Why We Giving Input To Electronic Amplifier In Inverting Pin? What Is The Reason Behind That? 

if we need a phase shift than we give input n inverting pin or when we need to boost signal at higher level, i.e; using cascade stages of amplification(even) than we also use inverting pin. 

• Question 42. What Is Instrumentation Instrumentation Engineering? 

Instrumentation engineering is the engineering specialization focused on the principle and operation of measuring instruments which are used in design and configuration of automated systems in electrical, pneumatic domains etc. They typically work for industries with automated processes, such as chemical or manufacturing plants, with the goal of improving system productivity, reliability, safety, optimization and stability. 

• Question 43. What Is Instrumentation Control? 

In addition to measuring field parameters, instrumentation is also responsible for providing the ability to modify some field parameters. 

Some examples include:

Device Field Parameter(s) Valve Flow, Pressure Relay Voltage, Current Solenoid Physical Location, Level Circuit breaker Voltage, Current. 

• Question 44. What Is Instrumentation Measurement?

Answer :

Instrumentation can be used to measure certain field parameters (physical values):

These measured values include:

* pressure, either differential or static

* flow

* temperature - Temperature_measurement

* level - Level Measurement

* density

* viscosity

* radiation

* current

* voltage

* inductance

* capacitance

* frequency

* resistivity

* conductivity

* chemical composition

* chemical properties

* various physical properties

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