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Que 1) What do you understand by Linux Kernal? Is it legal to edit it?
Ans: ‘Kernal’ basically refers to that core component of the computer operating system that provides basic services for the other parts as well as interacts with user commands. When it comes to ‘Linux Kernal’, it is referred as low-level system software providing an interface for user-level interactions.
Linux Kernal is considered as free and open source software which is capable of managing hardware resources for the users. As it is released under General Public Licence (GPL), it becomes legal for anyone to edit it.
Que 3) Enlist the basic components of LINUX?
Ans: Linux operating system basically consists of 3 components which are enlisted below
• Kernel: This is considered as the core part and is responsible for all major activities of Linux operating system. Linux Kernel is considered as free and open source software which is capable of managing hardware resources for the users. It consists of various modules and interacts directly with the underlying hardware.
• System Library: Most of the functionalities of the operating system are implemented by System Libraries. These act as a special function using which application programs accesses Kernel’s features.
• System Utility: These programs are responsible for performing specialized, individual level tasks.
Que 4) Why we use LINUX?
Ans: LINUX is used widely because it is completely different from other operating systems where every aspect comes with something extra i.e. some additional features. Some of the major reasons to use LINUX are listed below
• It is an open source operating system where programmers get the advantage of designing their own custom OS
• Software and the server licensing required to install Linux is completely free and can be installed on many computers as required
• It has low or minimum but controllable issues with viruses, malware, etc
• It is highly secured and supports multiple file systems
Que 5) Enlist the features of Linux operating system?
Ans: Following are some important features of LINUX operating system
• Linux kernel and application programs can be installed on any kind of hardware platform and thus is considered as portable.
• It serves the purpose of multitasking by serving various functions simultaneously.
• It provides the security services in three ways namely, Authentication, Authorization, and Encryption.
It supports multiple users to access the same system resource but by using different terminals for operation. •
Linux provides hierarchical file system and its code is freely available to all. • It has its own application support (to download and install applications) and customized keyboards.
• Linux distros provide live CD/USB to their users for installation.
Que 6) Explain LILO?
Ans: LILO (Linux Loader) is the boot loader for Linux operating system to load it into the main memory so that it can begin its operations. Bootloader here is a small program that manages a dual boot. LILO resides in MBR (Master Boot Record). Its major advantage is that it allows the fast bootup of Linux when installing in the MBR. Its limitation lies in the fact that it is not possible for all computers to tolerate modification of MBR.
Que 7) What is Swap space?
Ans: Swap space is the amount of physical memory that is allocated for use by Linux to hold some concurrent running programs temporarily. This condition usually occurs when Ram does not have enough memory to support all concurrent running programs. This memory management involves the swapping of memory to and from physical storage. There are different commands and tools available to manage the Swap space usage.
Que 8) What do you understand by Root account?
Ans: As the name suggests, it is like a system administrator account which gives you the ability to fully control the system. Root account serves as the default account whenever Linux is installed.Below mentioned functions can be performed by Root account
Below mentioned functions can be performed by Root account
• Create user accounts
• Maintain user accounts
• Assign different permissions to each account created and so on..
Que 9) Explain virtual desktop?
Ans: When there are multiple windows available on the current desktop and there appears the problem of minimizing and maximizing windows or restoring all the current programs, there ‘Virtual Desktop’ serves as an alternative. It allows you to open one or more programs on a clean slate. Virtual desktops are basically stored on a remote server and serve the following benefits:
Virtual desktops are basically stored on a remote server and serve the following benefits
• Cost savings as the resources can be shared and allocated as and when required.
• Resources and energy are more efficiently used.
• Data integrity is improved.
• Centralized administration
• Less compatibility issues.
Que 11) Explain the term GUI?
Ans: GUI stands for the Graphical user interface. GUI is considered as the most attractive and user-friendly because it consists of the usage of images and icons. These images and icons are clicked and being manipulated by the users for the purpose of communication with the system.
Advantages of GUI:
• Allows users to navigate and operate the software with the help of visual elements.
• More intuitive and rich interface is possible to be created.
• Less chances of occurrence of errors as complex, multi-step, dependent tasks are easily grouped together.
• Productivity is enhanced with the means of multitasking as with a simple click of the mouse, the user is able to maintain multiple open applications and transitions between them.
Disadvantages of GUI:
• End-users have less control over the operating system and file systems.
• Although it is easier to use mouse and keyboard for navigation and controlling operating system, the whole process is a bit slow.
• It requires more resources because of the elements that need to be loaded such as icons, fonts, etc.
Que 12) Explain the term CLI?
Ans: CLI stands for Command Line Interface. It is a way for humans to interact with computers and is also known as Command line user interface. It relies on textual request and response transaction process where user types declarative commands to instruct the computer to perform operations.
Advantages of CLI
• Very flexible
• Can easily access commands
• Much faster and easier to use by expert
• Does not use much CPU processing time.
Disadvantages of CLI
• Learning and remembering type commands is hard.
• Have to be typed precisely.
• Can be very confusing.
• Surfing web, graphics, etc are few tasks which are hard or impossible to do on the command line.
Que 13) Enlist some Linux distributors (Distros) along with its usage?
Ans: Different parts of LINUX say kernel, system environment, graphical programs, etc are developed by different organizations. LINUX Distributions (Distros) assemble all these different parts of Linux and give us a compiled operating system to be installed and used.
There are around six hundred Linux distributors. Let us see some of the important ones
• UBuntu: It is a well known Linux Distribution with a lot of pre-installed apps and easy to use repositories libraries. It is very easy to use and works like MAC operating system.
• Linux Mint: It uses cinnamon and mate desktop. It works on windows and should be used by newcomers.
• Debian: It is the most stable, quicker and user-friendly Linux Distributors.
• Fedora: It is less stable but provides the latest version of the software. It has GNOME3 desktop environment by default.
• Red Hat Enterprise: It is to be used commercially and to be well tested before release. It usually provides the stable platform for a long time.
• Arch Linux: Every package is to be installed by you and is not suitable for the beginners.
Que 14) How can you determine the total memory used by LINUX?
Ans: It is always required to keep a check on the memory usage in order to find out whether the user is able to access the server or the resources are adequate. There are roughly 5 methods that determine the total memory used by the Linux. This is explained as below
• Free command: This is the most simple and easy to use the command to check memory usage. For example: ‘$ free –m’, the option ‘m’ displays all the data in MBs.
• /proc/meminfo: The next way to determine the memory usage is to read /proc/meminfo file. For example: ‘$ cat /proc/meminfo’
• Vmstat: This command basically lays out the memory usage statistics. For example: ‘$ vmstat –s’
• Top command: This command determines the total memory usage as well as also monitors the RAM usage.
• Htop: This command also displays the memory usage along with other details.
Que 15) Explain the 3 kinds of file permissions under LINUX?
Ans: Every file and directory in Linux are assigned three types of owners namely ‘User’, ‘Group’, and ‘Others’. Find the three kinds of permissions defined for all the three owners • Read: This permission allows you to open and read the file as well as list the contents of the directory. • Write: This permission allows you to modify the contents of the file as well as allows adding, removing and renaming files stored in the directories. • Execute: User can access and run the file in the directory. You cannot run a file unless the execute permission is set. Que 16) What is the maximum length for any file name under LINUX?
Ans: The maximum length for any filename under Linux is 255 characters.
Que 17) How permissions are granted under LINUX?
Ans: A system administrator or the owner of the file can grant permissions using the ‘chmod’ command. Following symbols are used while writing permissions • ‘+’ for adding permission
• ‘-‘ for denying permission
Permissions also includes single letter which denotes
u : user; g: group; o: other; a: all; r: read; w: write; x: execute.
Que 18) What are the different modes when using the vi editor?
Ans: The 3 different kinds of modes in vi editor are enlisted below
• Command Mode/ Regular Mode
• Insertion Mode/ Edit Mode
• Ex Mode/ Replacement Mode
Que 19) Explain the Linux Directory commands along with the description?
Ans: Enlisted below are the directory commands along with descriptions
• pwd: It is a built-in command which stands for ‘print working directory’. It displays the current working location, working path starting with / and directory of the user. Basically, it displays the full path to the directory you are currently in.
• Is: This command list out all the files in the directed folder.
• cd: This stands for ‘change directory’. This command is used to change to the directory you want to work from the present directory. We just need to type cd followed by the directory name to access that particular directory.
• mkdir: This command is used to create an entirely new directory.
• rmdir: This command is used to remove a directory from the system
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